DNS stands for Domain Name System. It is a fundamental internet protocol that translates human-friendly domain names (like www.example.com) into the numerical IP addresses (such as 192.0.0.3) that computers use to identify each other on a network. In essence, DNS acts as a phone book of the internet, allowing users to visit sites using easily memorable domain names instead of needing to remember complex numerical IP addresses.
When you enter a web address into your browser, your computer sends the request to the DNS server to resolve the domain name into an IP address and responds with the corresponding IP address, allowing you to visit the site you want.
DNS is a distributed system consisting of a network of servers worldwide that work together to ensure efficient and accurate domain name resolution. This system helps route internet traffic, manage email delivery, and perform various other functions crucial for the proper functioning of the internet.